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The Grand National is the most prominent race in British culture , watched by many people who do not normally watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year. The sport is regulated by the British Horseracing Authority. Despite having an ancient tradition with well-documented history, all racetracks in Greece have ceased operation due to the Greek government-debt crisis.
Hungary has a long-standing horse racing tradition. The first horse racing in Pest was noted June 6, Foremost of these is Kincsem , foaled in and the most successful Thoroughbred race horse ever, having won 54 races in 54 starts. The country also produced Overdose , a horse who won his first 12 races, including group races in Germany and Italy , and finished fourth in the King's Stand Stakes at Royal Ascot.
Ireland has a rich history of horse racing; point to pointing originated there, and even today, jump racing is more popular than racing on the flat. As a result, every year Irish horse racing fans travel in huge numbers to the highlight event of the National Hunt calendar, the Cheltenham Festival , and in recent years Irish owned or bred horses have dominated the event.
The world's largest Thoroughbred stud farm, Coolmore Stud , has its main site there in addition to major operations in the U.
In recent years, Irish bred and trained horses have enjoyed considerable success in major races worldwide. Various horses achieved victory in one or more of the British Guineas , The Derby and the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe , considered the three most prestigious races in Europe. In the six runnings of the Epsom Derby between and , Irish horses filled 20 of the first 30 placings, winning the race 5 times.
Historically, Italy has been one of the leading European horse racing nations, albeit some respects behind Great Britain, Ireland and France in size and prestige. The late Italian horse breeder Federico Tesio was particularly notable.
In recent years, however, the sport in the country has suffered a major funding crisis, culminating in its expulsion from the European Pattern. In Wassenaar in the Hague there is a grass course at Duindigt. The industry was severely limited during the Communist era, when gambling, the major source of funding, was made illegal.
Horse racing in Australia was founded during the early years of settlement and the industry has grown to be among the top three leading Thoroughbred racing nations of the world. In country racing, records indicate that Goulburn commenced racing in In Australia, the most famous racehorse was Phar Lap bred in New Zealand , who raced from to Phar Lap carried 9 st 12 lb In — the mare Makybe Diva bred in Great Britain became the only racehorse to ever win the Melbourne Cup three times, let alone in consecutive years.
In harness racing , Cane Smoke had wins, including 34 in a single season, Paleface Adios became a household name during the s, while Cardigan Bay , a pacing horse from New Zealand, enjoyed great success at the highest levels of American harness racing in the s.
More recently, Blacks A Fake has won four Inter Dominion Championships, making him the only horse to complete this feat in Australasia's premier harness race. In all endurance events there are rigorous vet checks, conducted before, during and after the competition, in which the horses' welfare is of the utmost concern.
Racing is a long-established sport in New Zealand , stretching back to colonial times. Horse racing is a significant part of the New Zealand economy which in generated 1. More than 40, people were involved in some capacity in the New Zealand racing industry in In , more than one million people attended race meetings in New Zealand.
Racecourses are situated in 59 locations throughout New Zealand. During the —09 racing season 19 New Zealand bred horses won 22 Group One races around the world. The most famous of these is probably Cardigan Bay.
The Champ de Mars is situated on a prestigious avenue in Port Louis , the capital city and is the oldest racecourse in the southern hemisphere. The Mauritius Turf Club is the third oldest active turf club in the world. Undeniably, racing is one of the most popular sports in Mauritius now attracting regular crowds of 20, people or more to the only racecourse of the island. A high level of professionalism has been attained in the organisation of races over the last decades preserving the unique electrifying ambiance prevailing on race days at the Champ de Mars.
Champ de Mars has four classic events a year such as: Most of the horses are imported from South Africa but some are also acquired from Australia, the United Kingdom and France. Horse racing is a popular sport in South Africa that can be traced back to The first recorded race club meeting took place five years later in The premier event, which attracts 50, people to Durban, is the Durban July Handicap , which has been run since at Greyville Racecourse.
It is the largest and most prestigious event on the continent, with betting running into the hundreds of millions of Rands. Horse racing in one form or another has been a part of Chinese culture for millennia. Horse racing was a popular pastime for the aristocracy at least by the Zhou Dynasty - 4th century B. General Tian Ji 's strategem for a horse race remains perhaps the best known story about horse racing in that period.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, horse racing and equestrian sports in China was dominated by Mongol influences. Thoroughbred horse racing came to China with British settlements in the middle s and most notably centered around the treaty ports, including the two major race courses in Shanghai , the Shanghai Racecourse and the International Recreation Grounds in Kiang-wan , and the racecourses of Tianjin. Horse racing was banned in the Republic of China from , and the People's Republic of China maintained the ban after , although allowances were made for ethnic minority peoples for whom horse sports are a cultural tradition.
The longer race led to deaths and injuries to participating horses in both and the 11th National Games in Also, with the entry into the sport of Han majority provinces such as Hubei , which are better funded and used Western, rather than traditional, breeding and training techniques, meant that the original purpose of the event to foster traditional horse racing for groups like the Mongols was at risk of being usurped. At the National Games, Hubei won both the gold and silver medals, with Inner Mongolia winning bronze.
As a result of these factors, the event was abolished for the 12th National Games in Club horse racing reappeared on a small scale in the s. In , the China Speed Horse Race Open in Wuhan was organized as the qualification round for the speed horse race event at the National Games the next year, but was also seen by commentators as a step towards legalizing both horse racing and gambling on the races.
Almost all Chinese trainers and jockeys stabled in Wuhan. However, with the demise of the event at the National Games and the government not relenting from the ban on commercial racing, various racecourses built in recent years are all in a state of disuse: The Nanjing Racecourse, which previously hosted National Games equestrian events, is now used as a car park;  the Beijing Jockey Club was shut down in The racecourse in Inner Mongolia has not been active after Horse racing eventually returned to mainland China on year as one-day, five-card event for foreign horses, trainers and jockeys.
The British tradition of horse racing left its mark with the creation of one of the most important entertainment and gambling institutions in Hong Kong. Established as the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club in , the non-profit organisation conducts nearly races every season at the two race tracks in Happy Valley and Sha Tin.
All horses are imported since there is no breeding operation. The sport annually draws millions of dollars of tax revenue. Off-track betting is available from overseas bookmakers. Jockey Club of Macau was established for harness racing. It started to conduct horse races in Horse racing in India is over years old, making India quite possibly the oldest racing jurisdiction in Asia where racing was conducted under rules.
Today India has a very well established racing and breeding industry, and the sport is conducted on nine racetracks by seven racing authorities. Between them they conduct more than 21, horse races a year.
The JRA is responsible for 'Chuo Keiba' meaning 'central horse racing' , taking place on the ten main Japanese tracks. Racing in Japan is mainly flat racing , but Japan also has jump racing and a sled-pulling race known as Ban'ei also called Draft Racing.
Japan's top stakes races are run in the spring, autumn, and winter. In Malaysia , horse racing was introduced during the British colonial era and remains to the present day as a gambling activity. Within and only within the turf clubs, betting on horse racing is a legal form of gambling.
Mongolian horse racing takes place during the Naadam festival. Mongolia does not have Thoroughbred horse racing. Rather, it has its own Mongolian style of horse racing in which the horses run for at least a distance of 25 kilometers. Horse races are held in Pakistan at four different clubs. Horseracing in the Philippines began in The history of Philippine horseracing has three divisions according to the breeds of horses used.
They are the Philippine-pony era , the Arabian-horse era , and the Thoroughbred-era —present. Horse racing was introduced to Singapore by the British during the colonial era and remained one of the legal forms of gambling after independence.
It remains a highly popular form of entertainment with the local Singaporean community to this day. Horse racing has also left its mark in the naming of roads in Singapore such as Race Course Road in Little India , where horse racing was first held in Singapore, and Turf Club Road in Bukit Timah where Singapore Turf Club used to be situated before moving to its current location in Horse racing in South Korea dates back to May , when a foreign language institute run by the government included a donkey race in its athletic rally.
However, it wasn't until the s that modern horse racing involving betting developed. The nation's first authorised club, the Chosun Racing Club, was established in and a year later, the pari-mutuel betting system was officially adopted for the first time.
The Korean War disrupted the development of horse racing in the country, but after the Seoul Olympics in , the Olympic Equestrian Park was converted into racing facilities named Seoul Race Park , which helped the sport to develop again.
The race track complex contains two tracks with seating for 60,, a hotel, restaurants, theater and museum. There is no parimutuel betting in the UAE as gambling is illegal. In Argentina the sport is known as turf. The Carlos Gardel's tango Por una cabeza is about horse racing, sport of which he was a known fan.
Gardel was a good friend of Irineo Leguisamo, who is the most recognized Argentine jockey. At many horse races, there is a gambling station, where gamblers can stake money on a horse. Where gambling is allowed, most tracks offer parimutuel betting where gamblers' money is pooled and shared proportionally among the winners once a deduction is made from the pool.
In some countries, such as the UK, Ireland, and Australia, an alternative and more popular facility is provided by bookmakers who effectively make a market in odds. This allows the gambler to 'lock in' odds on a horse at a particular time known as 'taking the price' in the UK. Organized groups dedicated to protecting animals, such as the Humane Society of the United States and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals , target some horse sports with claims of animal cruelty.
Horse racing and rodeo are most commonly targeted, [ citation needed ] due both to their high visibility and to the level of stress and potential physical dangers to the equines involved. Some people may consider poor living conditions or use of whip abusive, while some may have concern with end-use of horses.
In , animal rights group PETA released undercover video of alleged abuses of former race horses at a slaughterhouse in Kumamoto , Japan. The group stated that "as many as 20," horses, including former Thoroughbred race horses, were killed in in Japan for use as human and pet food  the official figure for was 15, horses.
There are many dangers in horse racing for both horse and jockey: Anna Waller, a member of the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of North Carolina, co-authored a four-year-long study of jockey injuries and stated to the New York Times that "For every 1, jockeys you have riding [for one year], over will have medically treated injuries.
The study reported 6, injuries during the years — Horses also face dangers in racing. Jockey Club in New York estimates that about horses died at racetracks in The Jockey Club in Hong Kong reported a far lower figure of. There is speculation that drugs used in horse racing in the US which are banned elsewhere are responsible for the higher death rate in the US.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Horse race disambiguation. Horse racing at Golden Gate Fields , National Hunt racing , Steeplechase horse racing , and Hurdling horse race.
Horse racing in the United States. List of French flat horse races , Category: Horse racing in France , and French flat racing Champion Jockey. Horseracing in Great Britain. Horseracing in Scotland and Horseracing in Wales. List of horse races in Italy.
Thoroughbred racing in Australia and Harness racing in Australia. Horse racing in India. Horseracing in the Philippines. Horse racing in South Korea.
Betting on horse racing. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 12 September Archived from the original on The Horse Racing Channel. Retrieved September 16, Retrieved 17 September Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine. Archived at Wikiwix Publication. Retrieved 8 April Retrieved on 15 November Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 28 January National Thoroughbred Racing Association.
Where Racehorses Go to Retire". February 02, Dressage Eventing Show jumping. Flat racing Harness racing Point-to-point Steeplechase Thoroughbred horse racing. Cowboy mounted shooting Jousting Mounted archery Yabusame Pig sticking. FLAG- Signal held by man stationed a short distance in front of the gate at exact starting point of race. Official timing starts when flag is dropped to denote proper start.
Most common trade name is Lasix. Also, to ride a horse at that gait. GET- Progeny of sire. This is racetrack jargon that would be expressed more clearly by saying that the horse overstepped or overreached and cut himself; reserve grabbed a quarater for direct quotes.
Also, graduate of the claiming ranks-a horse, that has moved up to allowance, stakes or handicap racing. GRAY- A mixture of white and black hairs.
Used in handling horses around the stable and when not being ridden. Unit used in measuring height of horses from withers to ground. Also, to handicap a race, to make selections on the basis of the past performances.
Also one who makes selections based on past performances. Also one who makes selctions based on past performances. HEAD- A margin between horses. One horse leading another by the length of his head. Specifically, an entire male 5 years old or older. HUNG- Horse tiring, but holding position. A jumping race over lower fences than steeplechase races. Also, a sign flashed by officials on tote board on such occasions.
JOG- Slow, easy gait. Also a horse or pony who accompanies a starter to post. Also a jockey having a mount. Also to strengthen a horse's legs through exercise. Also distance between horses in a race. LOCK- Slang for a "sure thing" winner. LUG in or out - Action of a tiring horse, bearing in or out. Also applied to non-winning rider. MARE- Female horse 5 years old or older. Also, female of any age who has been bred.
MASH- Moist mixture, hot or cold, of grain and other feed given to horses. MINUS POOL- A mutuel pool caused when one horse is so heavily played that, after deductions of state tax and commission, there is not enough money left to pay the legally prescribed minimum on each winning bet. The racing association usually makes up the difference. Also a guard placed over a horse's mouth to prevent him from biting or eating.
NECK- Unit of measurement, about the length of a horse's neck; a quarter of a length. Illegal in most jurisdictions. NOD- Lowering of head. Winning in that manner. NOSE- Smallest advantage a horse can win by. In England called a short head. If lodged by official, it is called an inquiry. In England it is simply called "on," thus a horse " on" is actually at odds of PILL- Small numbered ball drawn to decide post positions.
Running in a position with horses in front and alongside. POLE- Markers at measured distances around the track, marking the distance from the finish. The quarter pole, for instance, is a quarter of a mile from the finish, not from the start. POST- Starting point or position in starting gate. Total sum bet on a race or even, such as the win pool, daily double pool, exacta pool.
PROP- Refusing to break with field from gate. Also, when a horse suddenly stops running a full speed by extending his forefeet as "brakes. In jumping races, balking at the jump. Also, held off the pace. ROAN- Mixture of white and red or brown hairs. ROMP- Running or winning with utmost ease. In steeplechasing, more particularly to teach a horse to jump. SET- A group of horses working together. Also, put to a drive, or asked to run by a jockey.
A row of barns. SHOW- Third position at the finish. Unable to improve position. SIRE- Father of a horse. Wet on surface with firm bottom. SLOW- Footing that is not fast, between good and heavy. SNUG- Mild restraining hold by rider. The fees can be for nominating, maintaining eligibility, entering and starting, to which the track adds more money to make up the total purse.